Geology And Geomorphology

Click to enlarge the mapThe geology of Wardha district basically consists of Deccan Trap lava flows with some patches of Gondwana formations, Lametas and the alluvium along the major river courses. This lava flows in entire area of the district in 400 meter depth. It can be easily found by comparing the difference between minimum MSL height of highest and lowest surface area of North -East part of the district.

The generalised geological succession is as follows :

AGE FORMATION LITHOLOGY
Recent Alluvium Silt, sand and gravels 
Upper Cretaceous To Eocene Deccan Trap  Massive and vesicular basalt
Upper Cretaceous Lameta Group Sandstone and Limestone 
Carboniferous to Lower Permian Gondwana Super Group

The sedimentary rocks of the Gondwana Super Group are seen to occur as inlayers in the eastern extremity of the district. A small patch of Lametas occur in the east - southeast art of the district. The Deccan Traps cover about 95% of the area and comprise rocks of basaltic composition. The alluvial deposits are restricted to the banks of the Wardha river and it’s tributaries. The thickness is reported to be 15-20m.

The prominent trend of lineaments is NW-SE. The Wardha and Pothara rivers seem to be structurally controlled ; there is a probable ENE-WSW shear zone south of Hinganghat.

The various landforms in the district are of three types : Structural, Denudational and Fluvial. 

Denudational hills comprise Gondwana group of rocks and occur as low relief hills east of Samudrapur.

Alluvial plains along the river Wardha and it’s tributaries are gently sloping.

River System and Dams

The Wardha is the most important river in the district. It rises in the Multai plateau of the Satpura ranges and flows all along the northern and western boundaries of the district. The other important river in the district is the Venna, which flows from adjoining Nagpur district to the Hinganghat tahsil to merge with the Wardha river at village Sawangi. Yashoda, Venna and Bakli are the main tributaries of the Wardha river. Other rivers in the district are Pothra, Bor, Dhom and Kar, which remain generally dry during the summer but turn into furious torrents during the rainy season and pose a threat of flood to nearby villages.

Bor and Dham rivers originates from Arvi Tahasil and merge with Vena river at Mandgaon of Samudrapur Tahasil, where as river Yashoda originates from Arvi, also flows in Deoli Tahasil and further merge the Wardha river.

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The overall drainage pattern is dendritic to sub-dendritic.

There are in all 39 watersheds; the entire districts included in the Wardha river sub-basin of the Godavari Basin.

There is no major dam in the district.

The following is the list of medium and minor dams (irrigation projects) in the district:

Name of the Project Capacity of reservoir Command
Dham River Project Mahakali Tah. Arvi 366.08 95.00
Bori Project Bori Tah. Seloo 380.75 161.94
Dongargaon Project Dongargaon Tah. Seloo 20.72 7.26
Panchadhara Project Redhora Tah. Seloo 57.80 24.60
Takli-Barkhedi M.I.Project Borkhedi Tah.Seloo 9.32 3.67
Ashti M.I.Tank Ashti Tah. Ashti 4.26 3.64
Mamdapur M.I.Tank Mamdapur Tah.Ashti 5.95 2.12
Pilapur M.I.Tank Pilapur Tah.Ashti 3.28 1.92
Kannamwar M.I.Tank Kann'war Tah. Karanja 6.23 3.24
Malkapur M.I.Tank Malkapur Tah.Ashti 3.77 2.26
Kawdi M.I.Tank Kawdi Tah. Ashti 4.10 2.02
Sawangi M.I.Tank Sawangi Tah. Ashti 8.13 4.35
Pargothan M.I.Tank Tah. Arvi 2.79 1.26
Ambazari M.I.Tank Ambazari Tah.Arvi 10.36 4.96
Umri M.I.Tank Umri Tah. Arvi 13.98 6.02
Panjara Bothli M.I.Tank Tah.Arvi 8.80 4.98
Lahadevi M.I.Tank Tah. Arvi 3.24 1.92
Mandla M.I.Tank Tah. Arvi 3.11 1.82

Physical features and Land use patterns

The physiographic features of the district can be organised in to three distinct geographical units:

The north and east hilly part of the district is a part of the Satpura spur projecting southwards. This hilly part slopes on three sides - west, south and north - to merge in to the Wardha valley. This descent to the south is through a series of terraces, at least three of which are distinctly recognisable - one at 500m, another at 400m and the third at 200 - 350m contour levels. The gradient is much steeper on the western slopes and the northern slopes.

The Arvi plains are a narrow, north to south elongated strip, about 70 km long and 6 to 8 km wide along the western boundary of the Arvi sub division. They are adjoining the Wardha valley, with the general elevation being 300 to 350 m and an undulating rolling topography.

The whole of the Hinganghat Subdivision and the southern two thirds of the Wardha subdivision from a fertile riverine plain draining and sloping gently southwards towards the Wardha river. The land falls from about 300m to 350 m level in the north to about 220 m in the south.

The soil cover in the district is classified in four main classes :

The Arvi lowlands are covered by kali soil with a high clay percentage in the area adjacent to Wardha river and by grey-black morand soils away from the river and nearer to the foothills. The soils of the Arvi lowlands are considered to be the most fertile in the entire district and perhaps in the entire Vidarbha region.

Click to enlarge the mapThe major land use category in the district is agriculture. Kharif crops are widespread in the southern part comprising the tahsils of Samudrapur, Hinganghat, Wardha and Deoli. In the northern tahsils of Ashti, Arvi, Karanja, and Selu, agriculture and forest coverage occupy more or less equal areas. A significantly large area under orchards is found in Hinganghat tahsil, with smaller patches in Samudrapur and Arvi tahsils. Deciduous forest is spread noticeably in Selu, Karnaja and Arvi tahsils with degraded forest around the fringes

The land use / land cover statistics for Wardha district are as under

Land Use / Cover Category Area in Hector Pecentage to total Geographical area
Built-up Land 1561 0.25
Agricultural Land 477405 75.90
Forest Land 82812 13.17
Water Land 63122 10.04
Water bodies and rivers 4000 0.64